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Voice Change শিখুন সহজেই (পর্ব -০২)

প্রথম পর্বে আমরা Voice কত প্রকার ও কী কী। Active Voice থেকে Passive Voice করার কিছু নিয়ম। Tense সাথে মিলিয়ে মূলত যে Voice Change করার নিয়মগুলো স্ট্রাকচার সহ আলোচনা করেছিলাম সেটা ছিল মূলত Assertive Sentence বা বর্ণনামূলক বাক্য থেকে কিভাবে Passive Voice করতে হয়। আজকে আমরা শিখবো Voice Change সংক্রান্ত অন্যান্য কিছু নিয়ম এবং Quasi-Passive কে কিভাবে Voice Change করতে হয়। তাহলে চলুন জেনে নেই নিয়মগুলো-

 

Interrogative Sentence:

Interrogative Sentence এর Passive Voice ও Interrogative Sentence করতে হবে। মূলত এগুলোও Tense এর সাথে সম্পৃক্ত তবে প্রশ্ন করার জন্য শুধু আগে কিছু প্রশ্নবোধক শব্দ যোগ হয় Active Voice এবং Passive Voice এ। কোন বাক্য যদি Do verb ( do, did, does) দিয়ে শুরু হয় তাহলে প্রথমে Interrogative থেকে Assertive এ পরিবর্তন করে তারপর  Voice Change করুন এবং Auxiliary verb বা  সাহায্যকারী ক্রিয়াকে প্রথমে বসিয়ে দিন। এভাবে করলে আপনার জন্য বুঝতে সুবিধা হবে। তবে যদি Do verb না থেকে ‘Wh word’ দিয়ে বাক্য শুরু হয় তাহলে সরাসরি পরিবর্তন করাটা সুবিধাজনক।

Active= Do you see the bird? তুমি কি পাখি দেখো?

Passive= Is the bird seen by you?

( Assertive Active= You see the bird. Passive= The bird is seen by you. Interrogative= Is the bird seen by you?)

Active= Has he done it? সে কি এটা করেছে?

Passive= Has it been done by him.

(Assertive Active= He has done it.  Passive= It has been done by you. Interrogative= Has it been done by you?)

Active= Who taught you English?

Passive= By whom were you taught English?

(Who এর পরিবর্তে Passive এ by whom বসে।Past indefinite তাই was/were বসেছে।)

Active= Who did you call? তুমি কাকে ডেকেছিলে?

Passive= Who was called by you? (whom এর subject হচ্ছে who)

Active= What do you want? তুমি কি চাও?

Passive= What is wanted by you?

 

Negative Sentence:

Active= I do not like puffed rice. আমি মুড়ি ভালবাসি না।

Passive= Puffed rice is not liked by me.

Active= I have not given him the letter. আমি তাকে চিঠি দেইনি।

Passive= The letter has not been given him by me.

or, He has not been given the letter by me.

 

Passive Voice of Intransitive Verb with Cognate Object:

(যে বাক্যে verb কোন object ধারণ করেনা সেটা Intransitive Verb. Cognate Object সেটা যেটা বাক্যের  Verb থেকে উৎপন্ন হয়ে  Verb এর মতই অর্থ প্রকাশ করে বাক্যকে সহায়তা প্রকাশ করে এবং অবজেক্ট হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়।)র্

Active= He ran a race.

Passive= A race was run by him.

Active= He dreamt a dream.

Passive= A dream was dreamt by him.

Active = I have fought a good fight.

Passive= A good fight has been fought by me.

 

Intransitive Verb Used Causatively (কোরো দ্বারা করানো অথৈ)

Active= The trainer walked the horse after the race.

Passive= The horse was walked after the race by the trainer.

Active= They have stood the table against the wall.

Passive= The table has been stood against the wall by them.

 

Passive voice with two verbs:

যদি কোন বাক্যে ২টি Object থাকে তবে যে কোন একটি Object কে  Subject করতে পারবেন কিন্তু Indirect Object বা Personal Object কে  Subject করাই অধিক যুক্তিযুক্ত। অন্য Object টা অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে। র্

Active= Mr. Das teaches us English.

Passive=

(1) We are taught English by Mr Das.

(2) English is taught us by Mr Das.

Active= My friend sent me a gift.

Passive=

(1) I was sent a gift by my friend.

(2) A gift was sent me by my friend.

Voice Change করার সময় দুটির মধ্যে প্রথমটি যেহেতু ইনডাইরেক্ট বা পারসোনাল অবজেক্ট। তাই প্রথমটাই যুক্তিযুক্ত।

 

Factitive Objects:

Transtive verb এর যে  object টা  complement এর মত ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Active = They made him king.

Passive=

He was made king by them.

King was made him by them. (Wrong)

Active= They elected him President.

Passive=

He was elected President by them.

President was elected him by them. ( Wrong)

 

Reflexive Objects: ( self যুক্ত object)

Active= He hurt himself.

Passive= He was hurt by himself.

Himself was hurt by him. ( wrong)

 

Passive Of Infinitives: ( to+verb)

Active= There are a lots of things to do.

Passive= There are a lots of things to be done.

Active= There is no time to lose.

Passive= There is no time to be lost.

Active= You have to admit this.

Passive= This has to be admitted by you.

 

Verbs Followed by objects+ Plain Infinitives:

যে বাক্যে verb টা object কর্তৃক অনুসরণ করা হয় এবং বাক্যে infinitive ব্যবহার করা হয়-

Active=  I saw him go to the garden.

Passive= He was seen to go to the garden.

Active= Rakib made us laugh. ( to গোপন আছে)

Passive=

( make, let, watch এগুলো bare infinite. এগুলোর পরে to বসেনা)

 

Quasi-Passive Voice ( কর্মকর্তৃবাচ্য):

এটা গঠনরীতিতে একটিভ কিন্তু অর্থের দিক থেকে প্যাসিভের মতই । নিম্নলিখিত উপায়ে এটার Passive করতে হয়-

Verbs with a complement-

Active= Honey tastes sweet. মধু খেতে  মিষ্টি।

Passive= Honey is sweet when it is tasted.

Active= The rose smells sweet. গোলাপ মিষ্টি গন্ধ দেয়।

Passive= The rose is sweet when it is smelt.

Active= The stone feels rough.

Passive= The stone is rough when it is felt.

 

Verbs without a complement-

Active= The house is building.

Passive= The house is being built.

Active= The books are printing.

Passive= The books are being printed.

 

কিন্তু নিচের Quasi-Passive গুলো Passive করা যায়না।

A conch blows. শাঁখ বাজে।

Rice sells cheap. চাউল সস্তা দরে বিক্রি হয়।

Rice is cheap when it is sold. ( wrong)

 

Complex Sentence  এর Voice পরিবর্তনে  Principal ও  Subordinate উভয় প্রকার Clause এর একই পরিবর্তন করতে হয়। এজন্য কখনো কখনো  it ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

Active= We know that Columbus discovered America.

Passive= That America was discovered by Columbus is known to us.

or, It is known to us that America was discovered by Columbus.

Active= I can not depend on what he says.

Passive= What is said by him can not be depended on by me.

Active= We know that the earth is round.

Passive= It is known to us that the earth is round.

 

Simple Sentence এ একটি কিংবা একটিমাত্র clause এ Double Passive হলে অর্থ ভুল হয়ে যায়।

Active= They proposed to hold a meeting.

Passive= It was proposed by them to hold a meeting.

or, It was proposed by them that a meeting should be held.

Wrong passive= A meeting was proposed to be held by them.

Active= The judge ordered the culprit to hang.

Passive= The judge ordered the culprit to be hanged.

Wrong Passive= The culprit was ordered to be hanged by the judge.

 

Passive voice যখন কিছু Preposition আসবে:

Active= I know the fact.

Passive= The fact is known to me. (know এর পরে to বসে by  বসেনা)

Active= His conduct shocked me.

Passive= I was shocked at his conduct. (not by)

Active= The light filled the room.

Passive= The room was filled with light. ( not by)

Active= The novels of Tolstoy interested me.

Passive= I am interested in the novels of Tolstoy.

 

কিছু ব্যতিক্রমধর্মী Voice Change:

1. Active= One should keen one’s promise.

Passive= A promise should be kept. (by one বসবে না)

2. Active= Some one has stolen my purse.

Passive= My purse has been stolen. ( by someone বসবে না)

3.  Active= We can gain nothing without labour.

Passive= Nothing can be gained without labour. ( by us বসবে )

4. Active= Mother looked after the boy.

Passive= The boy was looked after by mother.

5. Active= Someone built this building in 1990.

Passive= This building was built in 1990. ( by someone বসবে না)

6. Active= He presided over the meeting.

Passive= The meeting was presided over by him.

7. Active= He considers me honest.

Passive= I am considered honest by him.

8. Active= We ought to help the poor.

Passive= The poor ought to be helped by us.

9. Active= People believe that you know.

passive= It is supposed that you know.

10. Active= It is time to do your duty.

Passive= It is time for your duty to be done.

 

 

 

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